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The 12 Principles of Animation are a set of guidelines for animators to follow in order to create believable and engaging animations. These principles were first introduced by Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their book “The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation.”

Squash and Stretch

This principle allows animators to give a sense of weight and flexibility to a character or object by stretching or compressing it as it moves.

Anticipation

Anticipation

This principle is used to prepare the audience for an action that is about to occur.

Staging

Staging

This principle helps to clearly convey the story and the emotions of the characters.

Pose-to-Pose

Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose

These two techniques are used to animate movement. Straight Ahead Action is used for more fluid and dynamic movements, while Pose to Pose is used for more deliberate and posed movements.

Follow-Through-and-Overlapping

Follow Through and Overlapping Action

These principles help to create a sense of realism by showing how different parts of a character or object move at different speeds and in different directions.

Slow-In-Slow-Out

Slow In and Slow Out

This principle helps to create a sense of smooth and natural movement by gradually increasing or decreasing the speed of an action.

Arcs

Arcs

This principle helps to create a sense of natural movement by having actions follow an arc, rather than a straight line.

Secondary-Action

Secondary Action

This principle adds an extra layer of realism by showing how a character or object is affected by its environment or other actions happening at the same time.

Timing

Timing

This principle helps to create a sense of rhythm and pacing in the animation.

Exaggeration

Exaggeration

This principle is used to emphasize certain aspects of a character or object, or to make an action more dramatic.

Solid-Drawings

Solid Drawing

This principle helps to create a sense of volume and weight in the animation by giving characters and objects a sense of three-dimensional space.

Appeal

Appeal

This principle is all about making the characters and animation appealing to the audience.

By following these principles, animators can create animations that are believable, engaging, and visually stunning.

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